Estimated Total Population:

82.9 million

World Bank, 2018

Estimated SGM Population:



Estimated Total SGM Adult Population:

1.32 - 6.13 million

(Kroh, 2017) - (Dalia Research, 2016)

Estimated % of SGM Adults (18+):


Dalia Research, 2016

Germany has made many strides to promote the rights of SGM populations. Same-sex marriage has been legal since 2017, a third gender option is available on many important government documents, and Germany offers asylum for LGBT+ individuals from other countries who face persecution(Pew Research Center, 2019).However, there is still need for improvement.A ban on conversion therapy was passed in May 2020, but this bill only covers individuals under the age of 18. Asylum decisions are inconsistent and important protections, such as criminalization of violence and constitutional protections, have yet to be passed. Data on the SGM population in Germany remains limited and the SGM population faces discrimination and violence.

Germany's Laws and Policies from ILGA World Report (2019)

Marriage for Same-Sex Couples
Civil Unions
Joint Adoption
Second Parent Adoption
Employment Nondiscrimination Laws
Broad Protections
Criminalization of Violence
Ban of Conversion Therapy

*no constitutional protections 

**only minors are protected

Consensual Same-Sex Acts are Legal?
Does Not Apply
Max Penalty (Yrs in Prison)
Does Not Apply

Selected Published Studies, Reports, and Other Documents

Becker, I., Ravens-Sieberer, U., Ottová-Jordan, V., & Schulte-Markwort, M. (2017). Prevalence of Adolescent Gender Experiences and Gender Expression in Germany. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(1), 83-90. doi:

Davidson-Schmich, L. K. (2017). LGBT Politics in Germany: Unification as a Catalyst for Change. German Politics, 26(4), 534-555. doi:10.1080/09644008.2017.1370705

Grov, C. (2017). Gay Men's Perspectives on HIV Prevention and Treatment in Berlin, Germany: Lessons for Policy and Prevention. International Journal of Sexual Health, 29(2), 124-134. doi:10.1080/19317611.2016.1247758

Koehler, D., & Menzies, N. (2017). Surveys, Big Data, and Experiments How Can We Best Learn about LGBTI Development Outcomes?Retrieved from World Bank Group:

Kroh, M., Kühne, S., Kipp, C., & Richter, D. (2017). Income, social support networks, life satisfaction: lesbians, gays, and bisexuals in Germany. DIW Economic Bulletin (33–35).

Sattler, F. A., Franke, G. H., & Christiansen, H. (2017). Mental health differences between German gay and bisexual men and population-based controls. BMC psychiatry, 17(1), 267.

Society at a Glance 2019: A spotlight on LGBT people How does Germany compare? (2019). Retrieved from Economic Co-operation and Development:

Tschalaer, M. (2020). Between queer liberalisms and Muslim masculinities: LGBTQI+ Muslim asylum assessment in Germany. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 43(7), 1265-1283. doi:10.1080/01419870.2019.1640378